SDRG Projects

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Arkansas Prevention Needs Assessment Studies

This collaborative project with the state of Arkansas implemented a statewide system for assessing levels of drug use risk and protective factors and incidence and prevalence using validated survey and archival indicators. The project developed assessment tools and procedures for assessing existing prevention resources and community readiness to implement comprehensive prevention programs in two communities. This information will be used to guide prevention planing and programming decisions throughout the state.

Start Date: 1997-1999
PI: Michael Arthur
Project Director: Caryn Blitz
Funding: Center for Substance Abuse Prevention

Cambodians Sentenced Home:
An Examination Into the Lives of the Deported

In the last decade, two events occurred which dramatically changed the life course for a number of Cambodian refugees and immigrants living in the U.S. In 1996, legislation was passed eliminating case-by-case exceptions to deportation rulings. The second key event occurred in 2002, when the Cambodian government entered into an agreement with the U.S. to repatriate Cambodian nationals. As a result, approximately 1,600 Cambodians became eligible for deportation. To date, approximately 151 Cambodians have been deported, many of whom were born either in Cambodia or in a refugee camp and had arrived in the U.S. at an early age. Virtually no research has been conducted to examine the effects of deportation and the adjustment of returnees; nor to examine the adjustment and lives of the deportees prior to deportation. This pilot study will generate new information on these issues.

Start Date: 2006-2007
PI: Tracy W. Harachi
Funding: Institute for Ethnic Studies in the United States; University of Washington Royalty Research Fund

Children's Health Awareness Project

Children's Health Awareness Project.The five-year study developed knowledge of children's views about AIDS and AIDS-related behavior, which will serve as the basis for school curricula. Investigators gathered information from third through eighth grade children about their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes toward AIDS, other illness, drug use, and sexual behavior. The project explored the effects of ethnicity, sex and socioeconomic context and the relative effects of children's perception of risk versus social influences. The longitudinal design allowed investigators to track changes in participants' views between childhood and adolescence.

Start Date: 1990-1995
PI: Elizabeth Wells
Co-PI: Marilyn Hoppe
Project Director: Marilyn Hoppe
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Common Sense Parenting

This is a five-year experimental test of the efficacy of the Boys Town Common Sense Parenting® (CSP) program targeted toward a selective sample of eighth-grade students to improve the transition to high school. Both the original program and a modified version that is supplemented with materials piloted by the Social Development Research Group from the Stepping Up to High School (SUTHS) curriculum will be evaluated. Based on social learning principles, CSP is a widely used parent-training preventive intervention that seeks to improve family management and family interactions, as well as reduce child problem behaviors. Based on the social development model, SUTHS is designed to improve the transition to high school by reducing risks for substance use, delinquency, HIV-related risky sex behavior, and school failure. CSP and CSP+SUTHS represent promising family-based prevention programs for facilitating successful entry into high school. Seeking to improve the transition to high school among students at risk for school failure and dropout helps fill a critical programming need and holds promise for reducing the significant costs associated with substance use and related problem behaviors. The research study is being conducted in three Tacoma School District middle schools.

In 2013 Dr. Mason received an administrative supplement to analyze trajectories of marijuana use over time among the sample and to conduct focus groups about issues related to parenting, prevention, and the new marijuana law, with the goal of developing and testing parenting messages for the prevention of marijuana use.

Start Date: 2010
PI: W. Alex Mason
Co-PI: Kevin P. Haggerty (Subcontract PI)
Funding: Subcontract with Boys Town (NIDA funded)

Communities That Care Trainings - Manitoba

SDRG is providing Manitoba’s Healthy Child Manitoba Office (HCMO) with strategic consultation to develop provincial supports for community implementation of Communities That Care (i.e., student survey and technical assistance to provincial staff designated to support CTC implementation) and has contracted with certified CTC trainers to deliver the full series of CTC trainings and technical assistance to four communities selected to pilot CTC in Manitoba. The pilot sites include one diverse urban neighborhood and three rural First Nations and mixed communities.

Start Date: 2010
PI: Kevin P. Haggerty
Funding: Healthy Child Manitoba

Community Youth Activity Program

In the Community Youth Activity Program (CYAP) evaluation project, SDRG assessed the effectiveness of Washington State's community mobilization strategy for risk-focused drug abuse prevention. Evaluation staff observed training events, interviewed community leaders and team members, analyzed program materials, and conducted in-depth studies of selected communities. The evaluation examined community team development, factors that may facilitate or hinder prevention plans and activities, and the program's impact on the community.

Start Date: 1991-1994
PI: J. David Hawkins
Co-PI: Tracy Harachi
Project Director: Michael Arthur
Funding: Washington State Department of Social and Health Services, Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse

Crime Prevention Cost/Benefit Analysis Project

This study, in collaboration with the Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP), developed a model of the program costs and benefits of several violent crime and delinquency prevention and early intervention strategies that could be implemented in Washington State. SDRG staff reviewed the literature to identify model delinquency prevention and early intervention programs, and to gather information about costs and benefits of each model program. This information was reported to WSIPP staff, and incorporated into a cost-benefit model developed by WSIPP. The resulting analysis was reported to the state legislature to guide policy making regarding juvenile crime and violence.

Start Date: 1996-1997
PI: Michael Arthur
Funding: Washington State Institute for Public Policy of the Evergreen State College (WSIPP)

Cross Cultural Families

The Cross-Cultural Families program investigated the developmental trajectories of Vietnamese and Cambodian children in late childhood and early adolescence. Immigrant children and children of immigrants have become the fastest growing and most ethnically diverse segment of the U.S. child population. Yet, little longitudinal research has been conducted to better understand why some immigrant or refugee children fare more poorly in terms of educational attainment and health outcomes while others demonstrate healthy adaptations and adjustment. Data were initially collected in 1998 on the sample of 302 mothers in a pilot study focused on measurement equivalence when students were in the second through fourth grades. The longitudinal study began in 2000 with data being collected from mothers, students and teachers. Results seek to better understand the factors and mechanisms that are contributing to maladaptive developmental processes as well as those that buffer risk.

NIMH awarded additional funding for Dr. Emiko Tajima to investigate the prevalence of domestic violence and to identify risk factors for intimate partner violence among Vietnamese and Cambodian populations. Analyses also explored risk factors for harsh parenting practices, considering factors such as acculturation, co-occurring domestic violence, and the intergenerational transmission of violence.

Start Date: 2000
PI: Tracy W. Harachi
Funding: National Institute of Mental Health; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

CYDS Netherlands

This supplemental project was conducted collaboratively by researchers from SDRG and from the Verwey-Jonker Institute, the Netherlands Institute for Care and Welfare, and Tilburg University. It expanded the scope of the parent project to compare and contrast U.S. and Netherlands data on student cannabis use.

This project compared cannabis and other drug use prevalence as well as levels of risk and protective factors experienced by adolescents from two countries that have very different national policies regarding cannabis. The U.S. policy approach toward marijuana use has been weighted toward no tolerance and punishment, while depenalization of cannabis use has yielded an explicitly tolerant, harm-minimization stance toward cannabis use in the Netherlands.

This supplemental project also allowed an assessment of the common and unique barriers and outcomes of implementing the Communities That Care (CTC) strategic prevention framework in different cultural and policy contexts.

Start Date: 2005-2008
PI: J. David Hawkins
Project Director: Sabrina Oesterle
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

CYDS: Margaret Kuklinski Supplement

Dr. Margaret Kuklinski received a supplemental research grant to conduct economic analysis of the Community Youth Development Study (CYDS). The study consisted of cost-benefit analyses of the preventive effects of CTC on substance use and delinquency in youth, and an assessment of the effects of the economic downturn on the sustainability of the Communities That Care prevention system in CYDS communities.

Start Date: 2010
PI: J. David Hawkins
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

CYDS: Science-based Community Intervention
in Indian Country

This supplement will provide a unique opportunity to better prepare CTC to be sustainable and produce population-wide effects in Indian country. This supplement will allow us to augment the primary community diagnostic and outcome instrument, the CTC Youth Survey, to include potential culturally specific risk and protection indicators and to augment the survey to include HIV risk behaviors, an important but little studied outcome among Indian youth.

Start Date: 2010
PI: J. David Hawkins
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

CYDS: Netherlands Supplement

This supplement compares the implementation of Communities That Care (CTC), a community prevention system to prevent adolescent drug use and delinquency, in the Netherlands and the United States. This project is conducted collaboratively by researchers from the Social Development Research Group at the University of Washington in the United States and from the Verwey-Jonker Institute in the Netherlands. This binational collaboration studies how an intervention that was developed in the U.S. can be implemented and adopted in a different cultural and policy context.

Start Date: 2011
PI: J. David Hawkins
Project Director: Sabrina Oesterle
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Developing Safe Street Capacity to Implement
Communities That Care Model

The proposed project seeks to provide the Safe Streets Campaign of Tacoma, Washington with the capacity to implement & sustain the Community Action Plans developed through the Communities That Care program developed at the Social Development Research Group at the School of Social Work, University of Washington in Seattle, Washington. The proposal includes training in prevention science, assessment, data review and identification of best practices in the field of community empowerment.

Start Date: 2009
PI: Kevin P. Haggerty
Funding: The Safe Streets Campaign/Tacoma, WA

Diffusion of State Risk/Protective-Focused Prevention

The Diffusion Project studied the development and effectiveness of state and local prevention systems using epidemiological data on research-based risk and protective factors as the basis for prevention planning and program monitoring. The collaborative effort involved the state alcohol and drug abuse agencies of seven states: Colorado, Illinois, Kansas, Maine, Oregon, Utah, and Washington. The study described the processes by which each of the states implemented a prevention planning system based on epidemiological data and examined the diffusion and impact of these systems on community levels of risk and protection, drug use, and crime.

Start Date: 1997
PI: J. David Hawkins
Co-PI: Richard F. Catalano
Project Director: Michael Arthur
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse; Department of Education; Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Department of Justice

Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse (DASA)
Training and Evaluation

This cooperative project provided training and technical assistance to Washington State counties and communities implementing risk- and protective-focused prevention. DASA requires counties to assess their risk exposure, prioritize prevention needs, and create and carry out an action plan incorporating promising prevention strategies. Evaluation assistance to DASA was provided, including summarizing current county activities and developing guidelines for evaluation of future county plans using a risk- and protective-focused prevention approach. To assist implementation by counties, communities, and agencies, training in foundations of the approach and assistance with developing plans were also provided.

Start Date: 1993
PI: Richard F. Catalano
Funding: Washington State Department of Social and Health Services, Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse

Exploring Implementation of Drug Abuse Prevention
in Treatment Settings

This study was designed to fill an important gap in health services research on the process of agency adoption and implementation of tested and effective family-based prevention programs. This study is unique in that it braids a theoretical model of behavior development with a process for supporting high-quality program implementation of tested and effective drug abuse prevention programs by drug abuse and mental health treatment agencies. We examined the processes of disseminating a tested and effective family-based self-study prevention program (Staying Connected with Your Teen) to inner-city families at seven branches of Therapeutic Health Services (THS), a well-established community health agency in Seattle, WA. Staying Connected is a family-based self-study intervention to prevent substance use, risky sexual behavior, and violence during adolescence.

Start Date: 2010
PI: Kevin P. Haggerty
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Families Facing the Future
(previously called Focus on Families)

Children of heroin addicts are at high risk of continuing the cycle of drug abuse. Parents in methadone treatment at Therapeutic Health Services participated in Focus on Families, a program to teach parents how to lower their children's risk for drug addiction while avoiding relapse themselves. Parents learned skills to strengthen family bonding, encourage their children's positive behaviors and school success, and empower their own recovery.

Start Date: 1990-1997
PI: Richard F. Catalano
Co-PI: Kevin P. Haggerty
Project Director: Kevin P. Haggerty
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Family Based AIDS Prevention for Black Adolescents

The disproportionate and increasing number of African Americans infected with HIV raises concerns over how to respond to this population. This study developed, refined, and pilot tested procedures, intervention content, and measures employing a family-based intervention to reduce the risk of AIDS among African American adolescents.

Start Date: 1997-1999
PI: Larry Icard
Funding: National Institute for Mental Health

Family Connections

This project tested the efficacy of a universal drug abuse prevention program for families with eighth-grade students in the Seattle school district. The project examined the efficacy of two programs for improving family interactions and reducing family and peer risks for drug abuse. The intervention was based on the parent and adolescent family-centered “Parents Who Care” program that was developed and pilot tested under a grant form NIDA. The study compared families randomly assigned to group- or self-administered program conditions and an intervention control condition and examined the mediating and moderating processes through which the intervention affected patterns of drug use initiation and escalation. It also evaluated the proximal and distal impact of the program up to two years post-intervention.

Start Date: 2000-2006
PI: Kevin P. Haggerty
Co-PI: Richard F. Catalano
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Family Connections Health Disparities

This project is a 6- and 8-year follow up of the Family Connections project. In the original study, a universal family-based intervention to prevent drug use and other problem behaviors, Parents Who Care, was evaluated in two formats: self-administered with telephone support and parent and teen group meetings. Families of eighth graders were randomly assigned to one of these interventions or the comparison group which did not receive either intervention. Results suggest the programs worked differently for African American and European American families. This long-term follow up focuses on ethnic differences in program efficacy, risk and protective factors for drug use, and possible biological mediators of the impact of stress on drug use.

Start Date: 2008
PI: Kevin P. Haggerty
Funding: National Institute on Drug Use

Fostering Higher Education

This two-year project focuses on designing a college-focused intervention for young people transitioning from foster care to adulthood that contains components of educational advocacy, mentoring, and substance abuse prevention programming. This intervention will be designed to address both postsecondary access and retention. Intervention development will involve community stakeholder focus groups, convening of an expert scholar workgroup, and assessments of intervention usability and feasibility.

Start Date: 2014
PI: Amy M. Salazar
Funding: Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

International Youth Development Study

The International Youth Development Study used a standardized instrumentto measure a wide range of risk and protective factors, substance use, delinquency, violence, risky sex, depression, and self-harm. This study investigated and compared the epidemiology and etiology of these problems in Washington State and the state of Victoria in Australia. The project also compared the developmental impact of youth drug use policies that emphasize abstinence or harm minimization in the two states.

Data were collected from statewide probability samples of fifth-, seventh-, and ninth-grade students in Washington and Victoria. One thousand students at each grade level in each state were followed longitudinally and surveyed three times at annual intervals. This sampling strategy allowed for collection of unique information on the level and relative strength of predictors at different developmental stages. In addition to student questionnaires, sources of data included student academic and court records and a school administrator survey of school policies and practices.

The specific aims of the study were:

  • To investigate the cross-national validity of substance use indicators, problem behavior measures, and predictors of substance use across multiple domains, including the community, school, family, peer group, and the individual.
  • To compare the levels of risk and protective factors and the prevalence of substance use (initiation, frequency of use, and heavy use) and related problem behaviors (violence, delinquency, and school misbehavior) in the two states.
  • To examine the similarities and differences in pathways to initiation, progression, and maintenance of drug-using behavior between the two states. The international comparison also investigated whether cultural differences between the two countries predict trajectories of substance use and abuse, perhaps leading to the discovery of new risk factors.
  • To test the comparative fit of the Social Development Model in the two states. The Social Development Modelis a theoreticalframework that incorporates information on how risk and protectivefactors interact together to enhance positive and antisocial development.
  • To examine the extent of differences in normative messages of harm reduction versus abstinence in prevention programs and school policies, and the effect of any of these policies on pathways to drug-using behavior. Harm-reduction attitudes and policies, encouraging usage patterns that minimize the risk of adverse consequences, are more prevalent in Victoria than in Washington, which takes an abstinence approach to youth drug use policy and programming.


Start Date: 2000
PI: Richard F. Catalano
Project Director: Barbara McMorris
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse
Website: http://www.iyds.org

King County Department of Community &
Human Services - AAFT Evaluation

The Social Development Research Group consulted with Therapeutic Health Services and King County on the Evaluation of the Assertive Adolescent and Family Treatment Project. SDRG assisted with the process evaluation of the program adaptations, and with the analysis of outcome data gathered for the program being delivered to young adults.

Start Date: 2010
PI: Kevin P. Haggerty
Funding: King County Department of Community & Human Services

Lehigh Longitudinal Study

This is a continuance of a longitudinal study examining the effects of family violence on children as they transition through adolescence and early adulthood. The study seeks to mark transitions and life successes in the lives of individuals exposed to violence at a young age. Funding adds an adult assessment to three earlier waves of data collected over a 15-year period. The project is funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR), which will continue through January, 2011.

Start Date: 2007
PI: Todd I. Herrenkohl
Funding: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research

Long-term Follow-up of Families Facing the Future

This project is a follow-up of the Families Facing the Future (FFF) program (previously called Focus on Families). Data on FFF participants are being collected and analyzed about 12 ½ years after the participants were enrolled in the project and about 10 years after they were last interviewed. FFF was a randomized clinical trial of a preventive intervention with parents in methadone treatment and their families. The goal of the intervention was to prevent parents’ relapse, help them cope with relapse if it occurred, and reduce the likelihood of substance abuse among their children. Obtaining follow-up data will make it possible to assess long-term program outcomes on targeted risk and protective factors and substance use.

Start Date: 2004
PI: Richard F. Catalano
Co-PI: Kevin P. Haggerty
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Marijuana Legislation and Changes in Youth Marijuana Use
and Related Risk Factors

The goal of this project is to understand the impact of marijuana-related legislation (both medical and recreational) on adolescent marijuana and other substance use and related risk factors using time-series analysis of survey data from Colorado, Washington, and Oregon and additional comparison states. The recent legalization of recreational marijuana use for those over 21 years of age in Washington and Colorado and the failure of legalization in Oregon, along with the medical marijuana laws of earlier decades, have changed the legal and normative context for current and future generations of youth. One of the primary concerns for public health is that legalization may lead to more favorable attitudes and norms and lower perceived harm from marijuana use, which have been shown to predict earlier age of marijuana use onset and greater adolescent use, which, in turn, have been associated with a range of negative outcomes, including subsequent drug abuse and dependence and interference with a healthy and successful transition into adulthood.

This study uses an interrupted time-series design (ITS), including multiple baseline ITS, to examine statewide survey data from adolescents and thereby assess the long-term patterns of age of onset and youth marijuana use and marijuana-related attitudes, norms, and perceived harm of using marijuana among youth before and after (1) medical marijuana legalization, and (2) recreational marijuana legalization. Moreover, this study examines the patterns of change in youth alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use over time to assess the plausibility of the so-called substitution effect in which marijuana use substitutes (or, in contrast, exacerbates) other substance use.

Given the current paucity of clear scientific evidence, understanding how marijuana legislative changes impact adolescent drug use and development is a pressing necessity and a prerequisite for the design and implementation of effective prevention and intervention services. Study results will inform national and state-level discussions about the potential impact of marijuana legislation on adolescent substance use and developmental risk.

Start Date: 2014
PI: Katarina Guttmannova
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Maximum Individualized Change Analysis (MICA)

This study expands the research base on analytic methods to assess intervention effects of interventions that target multiple outcomes in heterogeneous populations. Specifically, the project continues the study of the Maximum Individualized Change Analysis (MICA) procedure developed by Boothroyd, Banks, Evans, Greenbaum, and Brown (2004). The method was initially developed as an analytic alternative to the more traditional multivariate and latent model approaches often used in studies examining individually-tailored interventions. Our initial developmental work on this approach suggests that MICA offers a number of significant advantages over traditional statistical approaches in studies where a number of measures are used to assess potential treatment outcomes. These advantages include increased statistical power to detect smaller program effects and few problems associated with missing data. The study will consist of two phases. First, an expanded simulation study of the MICA procedure is being conducted to systematically examine 1) levels of correlation among outcome measures, 2) numbers of outcome measures being assessed, 3) distribution of response effects, 4) numbers of outcome measures on which a person improves, 5) sample size, 6) weighting outcome measures based on qualitative assessment regarding the likelihood of change, and 7) amount of missing data. In phase two, the MICA procedure will be used in the re-analysis of data collected as part of SAMHSA-funded multi-site national study examining the impact of managed care (Leff, et al., 2005).

Start Date: 2008
Subcontract PI: Ric Brown
Funding: Subcontract with University of South Florida (NIMH funded)

Media Impact on Preschool Behavior

This project focuses on improving the media diet of young children by decreasing the amount of violence they watch and by increasing the amount of prosocial programming they view. The goal is to study the effects of this intervention on children’s behavior. The project is funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and will continue through 2012.

Start Date: 2009
Subcontract PI: Todd I. Herrenkohl
Co-PI: Dimitri Christakis (Children's Hospital)
Funding: Subcontract with Children's Hospital (NICHD funded)

MY (Minority Youth) Health Project

The MY Health Project was a community-based research project to prevent health problems among minority youth. The project was a joint endeavor by health providers, researchers and community members to test the effectiveness of youth involvement and community mobilization in changing norms and behaviors to prevent four major health problems facing adolescents: violence, adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and substance abuse. Youth were taught skills to reduce involvement in health compromising behavior, and to facilitate bonding and attachment with their family, peers and the community at large. Adult community residents who have never been involved in community development were members of Community Action Boards who assessed neighborhoods for the four health issues, prioritized risk factors, and planned and implemented a community project to reduce risk while promoting involvement, bonding, and healthy beliefs and clear standards throughout their neighborhood.

The MY Health Project received a minority investigator supplement from NIH for Dr. Tracy Harachi to further our understanding of the relationship between perceived ethnic identity, group orientation, and various health behaviors among adolescents and their parents.

Start Date: 1992-1999
PI: Richard F. Catalano
Project Director: Eric Pettigrew
Funding: National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Office of Minority Programs

National Center for the Advancement of Prevention

SDRG was a subcontractor to the National Center for the Advancement of Prevention (NCAP), funded by CSAP in Rockville, Maryland. NCAP is a national resource for the development and dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge about substance abuse prevention. SDRG's role was to develop methods for states to use in assessing need for prevention services and for states and communities to use in monitoring trends in alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and their associated risk and protective factors.

Start Date: 1993-1996
PI: J. David Hawkins
Project Director: Michael Arthur
Funding: Center for Substance Abuse Prevention

Navasota RHC Trainings

The Social Development Research Group is providing training and research support to the Navasota Independent School District (Texas) in its efforts to implement the Raising Healthy Children intervention in grades K-12.

Start Date: 2011
PI: Kevin P. Haggerty
Funding: Navasota Independent School District

OSPI/UW Middle School Guidance Curriculum Initiative

This project seeks to define research-based personal-social, academic-educational, and career development middle school competencies and outcomes. A logic model will be developed to connect developmental guidance and interventions to impact identified outcomes. This is Phase 1 of a three-phase project. Phase 1 will develop a responsive service model that will promote future orientation and assist middle schools in meeting priority outcomes. A plan will be provided to write, pilot, and implement the guidance curriculum at selected middle schools in Washington State.

Start Date: 2010
PI: Kevin P. Haggerty
Funding: Washington State Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI)

Parenting for Drug Free Children

Many family-oriented drug prevention programs have been found to be disproportionately available to majority, Euro-American families. Parenting for Drug Free Children evaluated the usefulness of a parent training program to meet the specific needs of ethnically diverse families. The program, "Preparing for the Drug (Free) Years," taught parents how to reduce their children's risk of drug abuse by improving family interactions and parenting skills. Trained members of the local community lead workshops in Seattle's Native American, African American, Cambodian, Samoan, and Hispanic communities.

Start Date: 1990-1993
PI: J. David Hawkins
Co-PI: Tracy Harachi
Project Director: Tracy W. Harachi
Funding: U.S. Department of Education

Positive Youth Development

This project reviewed national evaluations of programs designed to promote the positive development of youth in the areas of education, school-to-work transitions, social and emotional competency, and prevention of violence, adolescent pregnancy, substance abuse, and school drop-out. The study described evaluations and results of positive youth development programs. Information and outcomes from this project will be used by federal, state, and local organizations and other funding sources in planning youth programs.

Start Date: 1996-1998
PI: Richard F. Catalano
Project Director: Lisa Berglund
Funding: The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning & Evaluation/Department of Health & Human Services and National Institute of Child Health & Human Development

Project Adapt

The Project ADAPT curriculum was designed for young people entering the community after incarceration or residential treatment. The curriculum teaches cognitive and behavioral skills to reduce drug abuse and recidivism. During the field test, the curriculum was accompanied by case management services for youth as they returned to the community.

The 19-session skill-training curriculum begins with a five-hour entry group which creates a vision of success for participants. Participants begin by defining their goals and the rest of the curriculum revolves around these goals. A road map is used as a guide for their "journey to success." The map includes such places as "craving cave" for relapse coping, and "bossyland" for negotiation and compliance skills.

The curriculum is divided into six units: 1) coping with authority, 2) self-control, 3) avoiding trouble, 4) social networking, 5) relapse coping, and 6) problem solving. It is designed to offer opportunities to practice skill steps in situations participants are likely to encounter when they return to the community. Each of the 19 sessions runs 90 minutes and follows a similar structure: 1) check-in, 2) review, 3) teaching a new skill or concept, 4) practice, and 5) homework. Videotape is used to provide immediate feedback on their skill use. The curriculum is accompanied by a workbook which includes a complete review of the skill steps and practice exercises for skill improvement. A reentry plan is included which the participant completes as he/she proceeds through the workbook.

Case managers worked with clients to identify goals and prepare for community re-entry. After clients returned to the community, case managers sought to stabilize their environment and help them apply skills learned in the institution to the broader community. Case management focused on six goal areas: 1) home or placement, 2) school and/or work, 3) social skills, 4) relationships, 5) prosocial activities, and 6) services in the community. Case managers targeted two primary areas for intensive intervention. The first area was the client's greatest prosocial strength or need, the "Hook" that will provide the greatest motivation for the client. The second area, the "Trap," was the one most likely to interfere with the rehabilitation process. These two areas provided the focus for the case manager's work, although other assessed needs were also addressed.

The curriculum was field tested with incarcerated youth at a state correctional facility. Outcome data show that youth exposed to the curriculum significantly improved their skills compared to randomly assigned controls who were not. The curriculum is currently used throughout the Utah State Division of Youth Corrections.

Start Date: 1984-1989
PI: Richard F. Catalano
Co-PI: J. David Hawkins
Project Director: Elizabeth Wells
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Project After

Project AFTER modified the Project ADAPT curriculum to address the needs of pregnant teens to develop skills to prevent drug and alcohol abuse. The project delivered the curriculum at University Hospital. Outcome data show that youth exposed to the curriculum had significantly higher skills at posttest then at pretest. Young women involved with the curriculum had healthier babies than a matched comparison group. In addition, some public health clinics have broadened the scope of the participants to include pregnant and parenting teens. The curriculum is currently offered to young women throughout King County by the Seattle-King County Health Department.

The 9-session skill-training curriculum begins with a three-and-a-half hour entry group. This group creates a vision of success for participants. Participants begin to define the goals they want to work toward and the rest of the curriculum supports the goals they establish during the entry group. A map is used as a guide for participants' "journey to success."

The curriculum is divided into four units: 1) impulse control, including anger/stress control, and dealing with someone else's anger, 2) alcohol and drug refusal skills, 3) coping with authority, including the skills of negotiation and compliance, and 4) problem solving and healthy relationships (e.g. how to make new friends, expressing personal needs and avoiding old trouble friends). Each of the 8 sessions lasts for 2 hours and follows a similar structure: 1) check-in, 2) review, 3) teaching a new skill or concept, 4) practice, and 5) homework. Videotape is used to provide immediate feedback to participants on their skill use. The curriculum is designed to offer opportunities for participants to practice skill steps in "real life" situations they are likely to encounter. A participant workbook accompanies the curriculum. The workbook includes a complete review of the skill steps and practice exercises for skill improvement.

The AFTER case management model provided clients with a public health nurse and a social worker who were available to them from early pregnancy to one year postpartum. To meet the psychosocial, medical and educational needs of clients, a multi-disciplinary team delivered case management services. The role of the case managers was to provide clients with the support, skills and resources that would enable them to make appropriate choices for themselves and their children. Case managers reinforced the skills learned in the group setting and helped generalize them to real life situations. The case managers co-lead the drug prevention skills trainings and had regular home visits with the clients. They provided a consistent thread of services to the clients

Start Date: 1988-1992
PI: Candice Berger
Project Director: Beth Gendler
Funding: Office of Substance Abuse Prevention

Project Family IOWA

SDRG is teaming with Iowa State University to implement and evaluate the "Preparing for the Drug Free Years" (PDFY) parent training program as a strategy to increase family protective factors while reducing risk factors for drug and alcohol abuse in rural youth. This research is directed toward the evolution, refinement and diffusion of interventions to increase the proportions of competent caregivers to youth through university-school-community partnerships. It consists of a series of interrelated investigations addressing four goals across several phases of intervention research:

  • To conduct needs assessments for preventive interventions through surveys of prevalence of protective and risk factors for youth problems.

  • To examine factors influencing participation in preventive interventions.

  • To evaluate the efficacy of universal family interventions using findings to clarify intervention-related change mechanisms.

  • To develop strategies for university-school-community collaboration in the diffusion of empirically-supported family interventions.

The focus of SDRG's collaborative analyses with Iowa State University is on testing the efficacy of Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY). Results are available from the earlier experimental study that includes follow-up assessments at three-and-one-half years post intervention. The sample consists of 424 sixth-grade students and their parents who were randomly assigned to a PDFY intervention or control condition. Data were collected from both parents and students at pre-test, post-test, and 1-, 2- and 3.5-year follow-ups. The experiment involved extensive data collection with in-depth written questionnaires and videotapes of families involved in two structured interaction tasks. Among parents assigned to the PDFY curriculum, intervention-targeted parenting behaviors showed significant improvement for both mothers and fathers, consistent with PDFY objectives. More recent findings on long-term follow-up indicate that improvements in parent behaviors were sustained over time, and that there were subsequent reductions in children's smoking and drinking behaviors. Latent growth models showed that PDFY significantly reduced the growth of alcohol use and improved parent norms regarding adolescent alcohol use over time (Park, Kosterman, Hawkins, et al., 2000).

Overview of the PDFY Intervention:

Preparing for the Drug (Free) Years is a five-session, multimedia skills training program for parents of children ages 8 to 14. Each weekly parenting session lasts two hours. Sessions are conducted by trained workshop leaders from the community. The curriculum consists of a Workshop Leaders Guide, videotapes for each session and a Family Activity Book. The Workshop Leader's Guide provides session objectives, materials needed, and a well-scripted overview of the curriculum material. In addition, the guide provides detailed information on how to conduct the parenting workshops and provides a sample recruitment brochure for distribution to parents. The companion videotapes are used with the curriculum to model a variety of the skills and provide a succinct summary of the curriculum material. The Family Activity Book is designed to summarize the curriculum material and provide extension activities for the family. It also contains pull-out pages for families to post in their home. After each session, families receive an assignment to complete a family meeting related to the session topic during the course of the week In each session parents have an opportunity to practice holding a family meeting. The five sessions are:

Session 1, "Getting Started: How to Prevent Drug Abuse in Your Family," provides an overview of the program and describes risk factors for substance abuse including family management problems, family drug use and positive attitudes toward use, alienation and rebelliousness, friends who use drugs, and early first use of drugs or alcohol. Participants learn that family bonding is a protective factor for preventing adolescent health and behavior problems and that, as parents, they can strengthen bonds by providing children opportunities for involvement in the family, skills to be involved successfully, and reinforcement or rewards for prosocial family involvement. In this session, parents practice the steps for conducting a family meeting to plan a fun family activity as one mechanism for increasing family bonding.

Session 2, "Setting Clear Family Expectations on Drugs and Alcohol," focuses on reducing the risk factors of poor family management, favorable attitudes toward substance use, and early first use of drugs or alcohol. Parents are trained to clarify their own expectations about alcohol and other drug use. They are taught how to develop family guidelines and monitoring strategies, as well as clear consequences for following or breaking the stated family rules on alcohol and other drug use. Parents learn to enhance protective factors by involving their children in creating a family policy about alcohol and other drugs in a family meeting.

Session 3, "Avoiding Trouble," focuses on the risk factors of friends who use drugs, antisocial behavior in early adolescence, and early first use of alcohol or other drugs. Children attend this session with their parents. Using the five steps of "Refusal Skills," both children and parents learn skills to resist peer influence to use drugs or alcohol or to engage in antisocial behavior. The skill is taught using cognitive behavioral techniques of introduction, discussion, role play and feedback. Well-developed skills in peer resistance increase protection against problem behavior.

Session 4, "Managing Family Conflict," is aimed at reducing the risks related to family conflict, poor family management, and alienation and rebelliousness. Parents learn skills to express and control anger without damaging family bonds.

In Session 5, "Strengthening Family Bonds," parents explore ways to strengthen protection by expanding opportunities for involvement in the family. Parents learn skills to express positive feelings and love to teenagers, and they are provided with a process for developing a parenting support network to continue beyond the Preparing for the Drug (Free) Years sessions.

Start Date: 1991
PI: J. David Hawkins
Co-PI: Richard Spoth
Project Director: Kevin P. Haggerty
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse


Project Skills

Project Skills was a demonstration project to test the effects of adding a skills training and network development aftercare intervention to adult residential treatment for drug abuse. The program collaborated with 4 therapeutic communities in the Seattle area and randomly assigned residents approaching the reentry stage of treatment when they still lived in the facility but worked or went to school outside the residential facility. The program included skills training in social, emotional and behavioral skills to initiate and maintain relationships, refuse drug and alcohol offers, negotiate, and deal with conflict. Stress coping skills were also taught. In addition, program participants were matched with volunteers who aided them in exploring organizational membership opportunities in organizations that conducted activities in which the participants expressed interest. The program was effective in teaching the participants skills and reduced use of selected drugs including amphetamines, marijuana and total numbers of drug free weeks after treatment.

Start Date: 1981-1986
PI: J. David Hawkins
Co-PI: Richard F. Catalano
Project Director: Richard F. Catalano
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Raising Healthy Children (RHC)

Approximately 1000 students, their parents, and their teachers in Edmonds School District #15 are participating in Raising Healthy Children (RHC) project, funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Children in seventh and eighth grade, originally from ten Edmonds District elementary schools, are taking part in the project which is being carried out by the Social Development Research Group.

The research group has found that certain factors in young children's lives increase their risk for health and behavior problems in adolescence, including drug abuse and dropping out of school. Certain other factors seem to protect children against these problems. School success is one of the "protective factors" the researchers have identified, and one theme of Raising Healthy Children is that each student, given the right opportunity, can and will succeed in school.

The project combines parenting workshops and staff development for teachers. Parents will have the opportunity to attend workshops such as "Raising Healthy Children," "How to Help Your Child Succeed in School, "Preparing for the Drug Free Years" and "Moving Into Middle School." They learn how to encourage positive behavior and family bonding as well as academic success. The parenting workshops draw on research which has revealed that early childhood experiences in the family can enhance children's success in school and reduce their risk for later problems. The project also offers home-based services to a limited number of families with special needs who find it impossible to take advantage of the classes. During the high school years, parents and teens receive individual home visits that act as booster sessions to earlier parenting sessions. The indvidual visits are offered as students are moving into high school, as they approach driving age and as they prepare to leave high school.

Teachers in elementary and middle school receive training in how to keep children interested in learning. Using "interactive teaching," they provide students with opportunities for involvement, actively monitor each child's understanding of the material, and recognize mastery of incremental learning steps. "Proactive classroom management" enables teachers to create an atmosphere of learning that avoids notice of problem behavior and praises students who try to comply, at the same time minimizing the effect of minor disturbances. Students work in small teams, helping each other master the curriculum content. Active involvement in learning has been shown to enhance student achievement, concern for classmates, and commitment to school. The result of these teaching methods is a classroom where children feel good about themselves and their ability to learn.

Strategies employed in Raising Healthy Children have been shown by earlier SDRG research to reduce children's risk for later health and behavior problems. The researchers will carefully evaluate the RHC project to see whether the techniques are successful in a new setting, furthering our understanding of how to promote children's growth into healthy members of the community.

NIDA has awarded additional funding for Dr. Rebecca Cortes to investigate the relationship between parent and child depression and changes in symptoms across time. Analyses will also examine potential mediating effects of social-emotional competence on depressed mood symptoms among children in the study.

Start Date: 1993
PI: Richard F. Catalano
Co-PI: Kevin P. Haggerty
Project Director: Kevin P. Haggerty
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Raising Healthy Children: Bedford County, Pennsylvania

Raising Healthy Children: Bedford County, PA is based upon the successful strategies of the Seattle Social Development Project and the Raising Healthy Children project. Bedford County will receive technical assistance, training, and monitoring from SDRG, and local staff will be hired to implement the program. The program’s overall goal is to make a significant impact on known risk and protective factors for academic success, substance abuse, violence, and aggressive behavior before the critical middle school years when children most typically begin to engage in a range of risk behaviors. Bedford County chose to employ this strategy because multiple program replications have demonstrated that, by increasing protection for children and putting them on a positive trajectory, RHC helps reduce the overall number of youth at-risk entering the middle school/junior high school years and increases academic and social success among all students.

Like the original RHC project, this current program has teacher, child, and parent components. All elementary grade teachers receive in-service training in a package of instructional methods with three major components: proactive classroom management, interactive teaching, and cooperative learning. Beginning in first grade, teachers implement instruction in the use of a cognitive, emotional, and social skills training and interpersonal cognitive problem solving, which teaches children to think through and use alternative solutions to problems with peers. The curriculum develops children’s skills for involvement in cooperative learning groups and other social activities without resorting to aggressive or other problem behaviors. In addition, in middle-level grades, students receive training in skills to recognize and resist social influences to engage in problem behaviors and to generate and suggest positive alternatives to stay out of trouble while still keeping friends. The parents and caretakers receive classes appropriate to the developmental level of their children. Parents of children in grades 1-3 will be offered training in child behavior management skills and skills to strengthen their ability to support their children’s academic development. Parents of children in grades 4-6 will be offered training to enhance family bonding and strengthen parents’ skills to reduce their children’s risks for drug use.

Start Date: 2006
PI: Richard F. Catalano
Funding: Bedford County Commissioners, Bedford County Pennsylvania, and Unified Family Services Systems

Risk Factors for Adolescent Drug Use
in the United States and Colombia

The Republic of Colombia is currently undergoing a dramatic transformation from a traditionally drug-exporting country to an increasingly drug-consuming country. Increasing rates of adolescent alcohol and illicit drug use, and youth violence, have prompted an urgent call for prevention initiatives. This call requires the development, adaptation, and implementation of prevention programs, strategies, and systems developed in the U.S. such as the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system, which is being used presently in Colombia.

As a science-based approach to prevention, CTC is predicated on valid epidemiologic assessment of risk factors that serve as targets for intervention. This project examines the validity and utility of comparable measures of risk factors by combining data from existing, large-scale research studies of adolescent alcohol and drug use in both Colombia and the U.S., and assessing the equivalency of these measures between the two countries. To the extent that risk factors for adolescent drug use can be measured by the same items and have the same correlates between the two countries, the applicability of prevention programs, strategies, and systems that target these risk factors in these populations is strengthened. A further aim of this project is to assess the utility of risk factor data in Colombia by disseminating these data in a user-friendly format to community leaders and obtaining feedback on how to improve the interpretability of these data for improved decision making for local prevention initiatives.

This project represents an international collaboration between the Social Development Research Group at the School of Social Work, University of Washington, and the Nuevos Rumbos Corporation in Colombia. Support for this project has been provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the Colombian Ministry of Social Protection and Public Health, The Pan American Health Organization, the Inter-American Drug Control Commission of the Organization of American States, the Communities that Care International Committee, the SAB Miller Corporation, the Red PaPaz organization, and the Universidad Nacional and Universidad de la Sabana in Bogotá Colombia.

Start Date: 2012
PI: Eric C. Brown
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Rural Adolescent Psychopathology Study

This study uses existing longitudinal data from Project Family to investigate the role of psychopathology in the development of adolescent problem drug use. The project examines effects of earlier conduct problems and depressive symptoms on later problem drug use, and seeks to understand gender differences in those predictive relationships. The broader context of social development within the family, the school, and the peer group is considered also.

Start Date: 2005
PI: W. Alex Mason
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Seattle Public Schools High School Graduation Initiative

SDRG is working with the Seattle Public Schools (SPS) to evaluate the High School Graduation Initiative, which aims to reduce risk, increase protection, and improve attendance, behavioral issues, and academic performance in students at risk of dropping out of school. Under this project, SPS will address student needs with an array of evidence-based interventions and implement them with fidelity at several middle and high schools. It will also offer case management services to middle and high school students at high risk of truancy and drop out.

Start Date: 2010
PI: Margaret Kuklinski
Funding: Seattle Public Schools

Seattle Safe Schools Program

In this study SDRG evaluated Seattle Public Schools’ Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiative, a comprehensive effort to integrate school and community policies and services to students to promote healthy development and increase safety in and around school buildings. The District has adopted the Communities That Care strategic prevention planning framework to coordinate and integrate social development initiatives. SDRG assisted the District in developing a prevention data system to support planning and evaluation of mental health promotion and violence and substance abuse prevention services.

Start Date: 2002
PI: Michael Arthur
Funding: U.S. Department of Education

Six State Consortium for Prevention Needs Assessment

SDRG collaborated with the state offices of alcohol and drug abuse services of Kansas, Maine, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah and Washington to develop a reliable and valid set of indicators of risk and protective factors for alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse. The project also created a system for periodically monitoring and reporting these indicators using an efficient combination of archival and survey data sources at state, county, and community levels. The Six State project built upon the ongoing efforts of the collaborating states to develop and implement valid and reliable needs assessment systems to guide prevention policy and planning. In addition, the project produced data for validation at the state, substate, and cross-state level. A standardized technology for collecting and reporting risk and protective factor data applicable to states, sub-state regions, and communities throughout the country was created. The tools and technologies developed by the project will aid in state planning and evaluation efforts. By establishing risk profiles of specific geographic areas and population subgroups, prevention planners can use this information to implement more effective prevention programs to fit each community's unique profile of risk and protection and to evaluate the programs they fund.

Start Date: 1993-1997
PI: J. David Hawkins
Co-PI: Richard F. Catalano
Project Director: Michael Arthur
Funding: Center for Substance Abuse Prevention

Southeast Asian Families

This pilot study, part of the Social Work Prevention Research Center, examined the cross-ethnic equivalence of existing measures of family management among Southeast Asian and Caucasian families.

Start Date: 1996-1998
PI: Tracy Harachi
Funding: National Institute of Mental Health

SSDP - Adult Development & Mental Health (ADAMH)

This study examines the course, consequences, predictors, and prevention of depression, social phobia, and generalized anxiety, as well as their co-occurrence with risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and substance abuse and dependence in young adulthood in the SSDP sample through age 33. Analyses focus on the longitudinal patterns of these outcomes in the 20s and 30s, and the consequences of these patterns for healthy adult functioning, including positive behavior, physical health, and utilization of health services. Analyses include an examination of the effects of patterns of depression and anxiety on HIV risk. The study also examines the role of social developmental processes and proximal stressful life events in explaining patterns of depression and anxiety and their co-occurrence with HIV risk and substance abuse/dependence in young adulthood, as well as the long-term effects of the SSDP intervention in the elementary grades on these patterns.

Start Date: 2006
PI: Rick Kosterman
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse
Website: http://ssdp-tip.org

Staying Connected—Partners for Our Children

This 3-year study is designed to evaluate the feasibility of disseminating an evidence- based, self–directed, family-focused substance abuse prevention program (Staying Connected with Your Teen) within the foster care system. Staying Connected with Your Teen is a family-based intervention to prevent substance use, risky sexual behavior, and violence during adolescence that has shown long-term (2-year) effects in reducing initiation into drug use and risky sexual activity, and has reduced the frequency of violent behaviors, especially among low-income African American teens. This study is designed to build capacity within three Children’s Services Administration regions in Washington State to adapt and implement this prevention program. This study is unique in that it employs a theoretical model of behavior development with a process for adapting and implementing a tested and efficacious drug abuse prevention program with kinship care and non-relative foster care families. This project focuses on collaborating with child welfare practitioners and foster caregivers to identify the specific needs and unique implementation issues encountered in administering this intervention to foster families in the child welfare system. It brings together two research groups, the Social Development Research Group, which has developed and tested the efficacy of a number of prevention programs, with Partners for Our Children, a foster care research group. We expect that this collaborative evaluation of the feasibility of integrating substance abuse prevention into kinship care and non-relative foster care will set the stage for a future comparative trial with more intensive foster care drug abuse prevention parenting programs. This study will explore the feasibility of disseminating a self-directed substance abuse prevention program through the foster care system, and will generate valuable knowledge about adaptations, barriers, and enablers to effective implementation.

Start Date: 2010
PI: Kevin P. Haggerty
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Steps To Respect

The Social Development Research Group is partnering with Committee for Children to conduct a large-scale school-randomized evaluation of Steps To Respect: A School Bullying Prevention Program. The evaluation calls for 32 schools in four California counties to be randomly assigned to either the intervention condition, receiving the Steps to Respect program, or the control condition. Data from students, teachers, and other school personnel will be collected at pretest (at the beginning of the school year) and posttest (at the end of the school year) to determine whether schools receiving the intervention experience lower levels of bullying behavior and victimization than do control schools.

Start Date: 2008
Subcontract PI: Ric Brown
Co-PI: Sabrina Low (Committee for Children)
Funding: Committee for Children

Substance Use and Transitions to Adult Roles

Currently, SSDP is collecting and analyzing data from the sample in young adulthood to examine factors that affect the transition to adult roles. Analysis of the causes and consequences of early onset offending, the predictors of adolescent sexual behavior and pregnancy, the predictors of hard drug use and smoking, as well as the dimensions of positive behavior in early adulthood are also underway.

Start Date: 1996
PI: J. David Hawkins
Project Director: Karl G. Hill
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Supporting Early Adulthood Transitions (SEAT) Study

The Supporting Early Adulthood Transitions (SEAT) study is a collaborative project with the Social Development Research Group, the Annie E. Casey Foundation, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to evaluate the Jim Casey Youth Opportunities Initiative as an evidence-based intervention for youth with foster care experience who are aging out of care. The Initiative works to achieve positive outcomes for youth who are aging out of the foster care system. It does so by working to improve youth outcomes in the areas of permanence, education, employment, health, housing, community engagement, and financial capability. The ultimate goal of the Initiative is to change social work policy and practice toward facilitating successful transition to adulthood for youth in foster care. Having already completed a successful demonstration phase, the Initiative is now beginning a rigorous longitudinal evaluation that will compare Initiative sites to matched comparison sites. The SDRG research team is working closely with Jim Casey Initiative staff to conduct baseline and multiple follow-up interviews with youth, key leaders, and Initiative staff to examine changes in targeted outcomes and to establish evidence for the effectiveness of the intervention.

Start Date: 2011
PI: Richard F. Catalano
Funding: Annie E. Casey Foundation; The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

The Depression and Substance Use Prevention Project

This project evaluates the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the Depression and Substance Use Prevention (DSUP) program. DSUP is a parent-training preventive intervention adapted from two existing, evidence-based programs: one that targets adolescent depression and another that targets adolescent substance use. The program is designed for families of depressed parents with children between the ages of 12-15 years. The overall objective of the program is to improve parenting and parent-child interactions, as well as to prevent depression and substance use, and the co-occurrence of these problems, among teens. This project creates the DSUP intervention and provides a preliminary test of the efficacy of the program among families randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions.

Start Date: 2008
PI: W. Alex Mason
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

TOGETHER!
Communities for Drug Free Youth

Through Together! Communities for Drug Free Youth, more than 50 communities in Washington and Oregon planned and carried out comprehensive drug abuse prevention programs. In collaboration with Washington State University's Cooperative Extension and the Oregon Office of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Programs, the project provided an effective, replicable community mobilization model to strengthen a community's ability to do long-range, outcome based planning, and to involve a broad, diverse representation of community leadership. Local community boards used the Communities that Careâ planning process to build their capacity to use community-specific data for assessment, prioritization, planning and evaluation. Community members learned about risk and protective factors, and how to use a step-by-step process to assess their communities' risks and resources and harness all their resources to create a community-specific strategy for addressing youth issues.

Start Date: 1988-1994
PI: J. David Hawkins
Co-PI: Kevin P. Haggerty
Project Director: Chuck Ayers
Funding: U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention

Treating Cocaine Abuse

Treating Cocaine Abuse compared the effectiveness of two outpatient treatment approaches for cocaine abuse. In collaboration with Pacific Treatment Services of Snohomish County, the study provided outpatient treatment to approximately 110 cocaine abusers. One-half of the participants received a skills training intervention based on a cognitive-behavioral relapse prevention model, and one-half received a Twelve Step approach to treatment, based on the model of addiction as disease. Participants in both treatments reduced their cocaine use. Data analysis identified social and psychological influences on response to treatment.

Start Date: 1987-1992
PI: J. David Hawkins
Co-PI: Richard F. Catalano, Elizabeth A. Wells
Project Director: Peggy Peterson
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Using Facebook to Recruit Parents to a
Parenting Program to Prevent Teen Drug Use

This study examines the feasibility of using the social networking site Facebook to recruit parents to complete a self-directed parenting program to prevent teen alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. The study compares two recruitment methods: Facebook advertisement and web-based respondent-driven sampling. By targeting parents in Washington and Colorado, this study responds to growing concerns that youth marijuana use may be increasing in states that recently passed laws legalizing the recreational use of marijuana for adults. This research also examines the utility and acceptability of using a private Facebook group to provide a support platform for parents who are using the self-directed parenting program. Parents who consent to use the parenting program are randomized to one of two intervention conditions: self-directed implementation with and without Facebook group support. The private Facebook group provides the opportunity for informal interactions among parents and for study-facilitated group conversations.

This study has the potential to significantly increase the public health impact of parenting programs to reduce teen alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use if the use of social media tools, like Facebook, for recruitment and program support proves to be feasible.

Start Date: 2014
PI: Sabrina Oesterle
Funding: National Institute on Drug Abuse


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